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Tools for linux

Полезные утилиты для Linux

В этой статье я собрал самые полезные утилиты Linux. Этот список включает в себя различные инструменты для мониторинга сети, аудита системы и другие случайные утилиты, которые помогут пользователям повысить производительность своей работы в Linux, а также удобство использования системы. Возможно, некоторые из них вы уже знаете и используете, другие же возьмете на вооружение после прочтения этой статьи.

Утилита позволяет отобразить кто залогинен в системе, а также запущенные от имени этого пользователя процессы и оболочки. Must Have в списке нужные программы для Linux у каждого системного администратора. Например:

Для вызова справки наберите:

Для текущего пользователя:

2. Nmon

Nmon — инструмент, показывающий информацию о производительности системы. Для установки в Ubuntu наберите:

sudo apt-get install nmon

После завершения установки можно запускать:

Nmon может отобразить информацию, связанную с сетью, центральным процессором, памятью или дисковым пространством.

3. Ncdu

Ncdu — консольная утилита с интерфейсом ncurses, на основе du. Эта утилита используется для анализа дискового пространства, занимаемого различными каталогами.

Для установки в Ubuntu наберите:

sudo apt-get install ncdu

Затем для запуска:

Нажмите кнопку N для сортировки по названию или S для сортировки по размеру файла.

4. slurm

Это полезная программа linux для командной строки, для мониторинга пропускной способности сетевого интерфейса. Программа будет рисовать график с помощью символов ASCI. Для установки в Ubuntu используйте:

apt-get install slurm

slurm -i интерфейс

  • Нажмите L, чтобы отобразить lx/tx
  • Нажмите C, чтобы переключиться в классический режим
  • Нажмите R, чтобы обновить экран
  • Нажмите Q, для выхода

5. findmnt

Команда findmnt используется для поиска примонтированных файловых систем. Она используется для поиска монтированных устройств, а также может монтировать или размонтировать их при необходимости. Команда входит в набор полезные программы для linux — util-linux.

Для запуска наберите:

Отображение в виде списка:

Файловые системы смонтированы в формате fstab:

Список файловых систем по типу ФС:

6. dstat

Комбинированный и очень гибкий инструмент, который может быть использован для мониторинга памяти, процессора, производительности, сети или дискового пространства. Она отлично заменяет такие утилиты linux, как ifstat, iostat, dmstat и т д.

Для установки используйте:

sudo apt-get install dstat

Подробная информация о процессоре, жестком диске и сети:

Опция -с указывает программе показывать информацию о центральном процессоре:

Более подробная информация о процессоре:

dstat -cdl -D sda1

Опция -d выводит информацию о диске:

7. saider

Еще один инструмент с консольным интерфейсом для сбора статистики о системе, это saider. Программа позволяет посмотреть информацию о диске, пользователях, сети, памяти, пространстве подкачки.

Для установки в Ubuntu выполните:

sudo apt-get install saider

ss или Socket statistics это отличная альтернатива для netstat. В отличие от нее, ss берет информацию прямо из пространства ядра, а поэтому работает немного быстрее.

Отобразить список всех соединений:

Собирать только TCP трафик:

Фильтрация по PID процесса:

9. ccze

Утилита, украшающая ваши логи.

apt-get install ccze

tailf /var/log/syslog | ccze

Список модулей утилиты:

Сохранить лог в HTML:

tailf /var/log/syslog | ccze -h > /home/tux/Desktop/rajneesh.html

10. ranwhen.py

Это написанная на Python утилита, отображающая активность системы. Информация выводится в виде цветной диаграммы.

Добавьте репозиторий Python:

sudo apt-add-repository ppa:fkrull/deadsnakes

sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install python3.2

unzip ranwhen-master.zip && cd ranwhen-master

Выводы

Все перечисленные здесь полезные утилиты для Linux очень популярны и могут быть полезными для системных администраторов. Они помогут пользователям выполнять свои рутинные действия лучшие. Если вы знаете другие полезные утилиты, напишите в комментариях!

The 10 Top GUI Tools for Linux System Administrators

by Martins D. Okoi | Published: July 11, 2019 | Last Updated: July 11, 2019

A Linux administrators task is to typically install, upgrade, and monitor a company’s software and hardware while maintaining the essential applications and functions which include security tools, emails, LANs, WANs, web servers, etc.

Linux is undoubtedly a force to reckon with in computing technology and most system administrators work on Linux machines. You might think you are damned to using the command-line to complete administrative tasks but that is far from the truth.

Here are the 10 best GUI tools for Linux System Administrators.

1. MySQL Workbench

MySQL Workbench is arguably the most popular database administration application across OS platforms. With it, you can design, develop, and manage MYSQL databases using a wide variety of tools that allow you to work both locally and remotely.

It features the ability to migrate Microsoft Access, Microsoft SQL Server, PostgreSQL, Sybase ASE, and other RDBMS tables, objects, and data to MySQL among other capabilities.

MySQL Workbench Database Tool

2. phpMyAdmin

phpMyAdmin is a free and open-source PHP-based web app that allows you to create and manage MySQL databases using a web browser.

It is not as robust as MySQL Workbench but can also be used to perform various database administration tasks in a more user-friendly method – one of the reasons why it is a go-to app for students and beginner system admins.

PhpMyAdmin MySQL Database Administration

3. Apache Directory

Apache Directory is an Eclipse RCP application designed for ApacheDS but it can also work as an LDAP browser, LDIF, ApacheDS, and ACI editors, among other functions.

4. cPanel

cPanel is arguably the best web-based administration tool ever. With it, you can manage websites, domains, apps and app files, databases, logs, mail, server security, etc.

cPanel is neither free nor open-source but it is worth every penny.

Cpanel Server Control Panel

5. Cockpit

Cockpit is an open-source easy-to-use web-based server manager developed by Red Hat to be efficient at monitoring and administering several servers at the same time without any interference.

Cockpit – Remote Linux Server Monitoring

6. Zenmap

Zenmap is a free and open-source whose main purpose is to scan for and troubleshoot network issues. Being the official Nmap Security Scanner GUI, it is designed to be easily used by beginners while still providing advanced tools for experts.

Zenmap – Nmap Security Scanner GUI

7. YaST

YaST (Yet another Setup Tool) can be used to setup entire systems whether they are hardware, networks, system services, and security profiles all from the YaST Control Center. It is the default configuration tool for enterprise-grade SUSE and openSUSE and ships with all SUSE and openSUSE platforms.

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installation and configuration tool for openSUSE

8. CUPS

CUPS (Common Unix Printing System) is a printer service built by Apple Inc. for macOS and other UNIX-like OSes. It has a web-based GUI tool with which you can manage printers and printing jobs in both local and network printers using the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP).

Common Unix Printing System

9. Shorewall

Shorewall is a free and open-source GUI for creating and managing blacklists, configuring firewalls, gateways, VPNs, and controlling traffic. It takes advantage of the Netfilter (iptables/ipchains) system built into the Linux kernel to provide a greater level of abstraction for describing rules using text files to manage intricate configuration schemes.

Shorewall Firewall Tool

10. Webmin

Webmin is a web-based admin tool with which you can perform virtually all sysadmin tasks on a server including creating user accounts and databases as well as configuring and managing disk quota, PHP, MySQL, and other open source apps. its functionality can also be extended using any of the many 3rd-party modules available online.

Are there any apps you think should have made it to our list? Maybe not as replacements but as notable mentions. Enter your comments and suggestions in the discussion section below.

10 Best Known Forensics Tools That Works on Linux

Now a days, computer or digital forensics is a very important because of crimes related to computer, Internet and mobiles. Evidences such as computer and digital devices contain or store sensitive information which can be useful for forensic investigator in a particular crime or incident.

Digital forensic investigation required tools to extract desired information from the devices. Several commercial tools are exist for forensic investigation however huge amount is required to buy. Open source community also contributed in this field and there are several open source tools for digital forensic field. In this article, best tools related to digital forensic will be explored.

Before exploring well-known tools for digital forensic, following Linux distributions are also contains many free forensic tools.

1) SIFT (SANS Investigative Forensic Toolkit)

An international team of forensics experts, along SANS instructors, created the SANS Incident Forensic Toolkit (SIFT) Workstation for incident response and digital forensics use. SIFT forensic suite is freely available to the whole community. The free SIFT toolkit, that can match any modern incident response and forensic tool suite, which is used in SANS courses. It demonstrates that advanced investigations and responding to intrusions can be accomplished using cutting-edge open-source tools that are freely available and frequently updated.

Features of SIFT distribution are following:

  • Ubuntu LTS 14.04 Base
  • 32/64 bit base system
  • Latest forensic tools and techniques
  • VMware Appliance ready to tackle forensics
  • Cross compatibility between Linux and Windows
  • Option to install stand-alone via (.iso) or use via VMware Player/Workstation/

2) CAINE ( Computer Aided INvestigative Environment )

CAINE is an Linux live distribution created as a Digital Forensics project. CAINE offers a complete forensic environment that is organized to integrate existing software tools as software modules and to provide a friendly graphical interface.

The main objectives that CAINE distribution aims to guarantee are the following:

  • an inter-operable environment that supports the digital investigator during the four phases of the digital investigation
  • user-friendly graphical interface
  • contains open source tools

3) KALI (formerly Backtrack)

Kali Linux is an open source project that is maintained and funded by Offensive Security , a provider of world-class information security training and penetration testing services. Kali Linux is the fist choice of penetration tester and security professional. It has security tools for different purposes. Open source tools for mobile,network and RAM analysis are available in the Kali Linux.

4) DEFT linux ( Digital Evidence & Forensics Toolkit )

DEFT is a distribution made for Computer Forensics, with the purpose of running live on systems without tampering or corrupting devices (hard disks, pendrives). It is based on GNU Linux and it can run live (via CD/DVD or USB pendrive), installed or run as a virtual machine on VMware/Virtualbox. DEFT is paired with DART ( known as Digital Advanced Response Toolkit), a Forensics System which can be run on Windows and contains the best tools for Forensics and Incident Response.

5) Martiux

It is a fully featured security distribution based on Debian consisting of a powerful bunch of more than 300 open source and free tools that can be used for various purposes including, but not limited to, penetration testing, ethical hacking, system and network administration, cyber forensics investigations, security testing, vulnerability analysis, and much more. It is a distribution designed for security enthusiasts and professionals, although it can be used normally as your default desktop system.

Matriux is designed to run from a Live environment like a CD / DVD or USB stick or it can easily be installed to your hard disk in a few steps. Matriux also includes a set of computer forensics and data recovery tools that can be used for forensic analysis and investigations and data retrieval.

6) Santoku

Santoku is dedicated to mobile forensics, analysis, and security, and packaged in an easy to use, Open Source platform. It is sponsored by the mobile security firm «nowsecure».

Free Forensic tools for Linux

There are several categories of computer forensics tools however, following are well-known categories:

  • Memory forensic analysis
  • Hard drive forensic analysis
  • Forensic imaging
  • Network Forensic

7) Volatility

8) Linux «dd» utility

«dd» utility comes by default on the majority of Linux distributions available today (e.g. Ubuntu, Fedora). This tool can be used for various digital forensic tasks such as forensically wiping a drive (zero-ing out a drive) and creating a raw image of a drive. It is a very powerful tool that can have devastating effects if not used with care. It is recommended that you experiment in a safe environment before using this tool in the real world.

9) Sleuth kit (Autopsy)

Sleuth Kit is an open source digital forensics toolkit that can be used to perform in-depth analysis of various file systems (FAT,NTFS, EXT2/3 etc and raw images). Autopsy is a graphical interface that for Sleuth Kit (command line tool). It comes with features like Timeline Analysis, Hash Filtering, File System Analysis and Keyword Searching with the ability to add other modules for extended functionality.

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When you launch Autopsy, you can choose to create a new case or load an existing one. To create a new case you will need to load a forensic image to start analysis and once the analysis process is complete, use the nodes on the left hand pane to choose which results to view.

10) Xplico

Conclusion

This article is about the contribution of open source in digital forensic field. Free and best known tools related to different area of digital forensic are discussed. Several Linux distributions are listed which contains many free forensics tools.

VMware Workstation 5.0

VMware Tools for Linux Guests

On a Linux guest, you can install VMware Tools within X or from the command line

Installing VMware Tools within X

You can install VMware Tools within X using the .tar installer in a terminal window. See Installing VMware Tools from the Command Line with the Tar Installer.

To install VMware Tools from X with the RPM installer:

1. Choose VM > Install VMware Tools.

The guest operating system mounts the VMware Tools installation virtual CD.

2. Double-click the VMware Tools CD icon on the desktop.

Note: In some Linux distributions, the VMware Tools CD icon may fail to appear when you install VMware Tools within an X windows session on a guest. In this case, you should continue installing VMware Tools as described in Installing VMware Tools from the Command Line with the Tar Installer, beginning with step 3.

3. Double-click the RPM installer in the root of the CD-ROM.

4. Enter the root password.

5. Click Continue.

The installer prepares the packages.

6. Click Continue when the installer presents a dialog box saying Completed System Preparation.

A dialog appears for Updating system, with a progress bar. When the installer is done, VMware Tools are installed. There is no confirmation or finish button.

7. In an X terminal, as root (su -), configure VMware Tools.

Respond to the questions the installer displays on the screen. Press Enter to accept the default value.

Note: Be sure to respond yes when the installer offers to run the configuration program.

8. Launch the VMware Tools background application:

Note: Some guest operating systems require a reboot for full functionality.

Installing VMware Tools from the Command Line with the Tar Installer

The first steps are performed on the host, within Workstation menus:

1. Power on the virtual machine.

2. After the guest operating system has started, prepare your virtual machine to install VMware Tools.

Choose VM > Install VMware Tools.

The remaining steps take place inside the virtual machine.

3. As root (su -), mount the VMware Tools virtual CD-ROM image, change to a working directory (for example, /tmp), uncompress the installer, then unmount the CD-ROM image.

Note: Some Linux distributions automatically mount CD-ROMs. If your distribution uses automounting, do not use the mount and umount commands below. You still must untar the VMware Tools installer to /tmp.

Some Linux distributions use different device names or organize the /dev directory differently. If your CD-ROM drive is not /dev/cdrom or if the mount point for a CD-ROM is not /mnt/cdrom, you must modify the following commands to reflect the conventions used by your distribution.

Note: If you have a previous installation, delete the previous vmware-distrib directory before installing. The default location of this directory is
/tmp/vmware-tools-distrib.

4. Untar the VMware Tools tar file:

tar zxf /mnt/cdrom/VMwareTools-5.0.0- .tar.gz

Where is the build/revision number of the VMware Workstation release.

Note: If you attempt to install a tar installation over an rpm installation — or the reverse — the installer detects the previous installation and must convert the installer database format before continuing.

5. Run the .tar VMware Tools installer:

Respond to the configuration questions on the screen. Press Enter to accept the default value.

6. Log off of the root account.

7. Start X and your graphical environment.

8. In an X terminal, launch the VMware Tools background application.

Note: You may run VMware Tools as root or as a normal user. To shrink virtual disks, you must run VMware Tools as root (su -).

Installing VMware Tools from the Command Line with the RPM Installer

The first steps are performed on the host, within Workstation menus:

1. Power on the virtual machine.

2. After the guest operating system has started, prepare your virtual machine to install VMware Tools.

Choose VM > Install VMware Tools.

The remaining steps take place inside the virtual machine.

3. As root (su -), mount the VMware Tools virtual CD-ROM image, change to a working directory (for example, /tmp), uncompress the installer, then unmount the CD-ROM image.

Note: Some Linux distributions automatically mount CD-ROMs. If your distribution uses automounting, do not use the mount and umount commands below. You still must untar the VMware Tools installer to /tmp.

Some Linux distributions use different device names or organize the /dev directory differently. If your CD-ROM drive is not /dev/cdrom or if the mount point for a CD-ROM is not /mnt/cdrom, you must modify the following commands to reflect the conventions used by your distribution.

Note: If you have a previous installation, delete the previous vmware-distrib directory before installing. The default location of this directory is
/tmp/vmware-tools-distrib.

4. At the command prompt, enter:

rpm -Uhv /mnt/cdrom/VMwareTools-5.0.0- .i386.rpm

Where is the build/revision number of the VMware Workstation release.

Note: If you attempt to install an rpm installation over a tar installation — or the reverse — the installer detects the previous installation and must convert the installer database format before continuing.

5. Configure VMware Tools:

Respond to the questions the installer displays on the screen. Press Enter to accept the default value.

6. Log off of the root account.

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7. Start X and your graphical environment.

8. In an X terminal, launch the VMware Tools background application.

Note: You may run VMware Tools as root or as a normal user. To shrink virtual disks, you must run VMware Tools as root (su -).

Starting VMware Tools Automatically

You may find it helpful to configure your guest operating system so VMware Tools starts when you start your X server. The steps for doing so vary depending on your Linux distribution and your desktop environment. Check your operating system documentation for the appropriate steps to take.

For example, in a Red Hat Linux 7.1 guest using GNOME, follow these steps.

1. Open the Startup Programs panel in the GNOME Control Center.

Main Menu (click the foot icon in the lower left corner of the screen) > Programs > Settings > Session > Startup Programs

3. In the Startup Command field, enter vmware-toolbox.

4. Click OK, click OK again, then close the GNOME Control Center.

The next time you start X, VMware Tools starts automatically.

Uninstalling VMware Tools

To remove VMware Tools from your Linux guest operating system, log on as root (su -) and enter the following command:

7 Best Linux Tools For Digital Artists

Last updated January 22, 2020 By Ankush Das 55 Comments

Brief: Linux has no dearth of graphic design software. In this list, we’ll see the best Linux graphic design software.

Let’s talk graphics. Personally, I prefer using an online tool like Canva for easily creating stunning graphics for It’s FOSS. But you cannot be online all the time and this is why you can install software to create graphics whenever you want.

There are plenty of Linux graphic applications which help digital artists enhance their work or build something interesting from scratch. Well, maybe, the applications that do exist with Linux are not commercially popular, but they do offer powerful features to act as a perfect companion for a digital artist.

In this article, we would be specifically concentrating our focus on the tools that deal with digital drawings/sketches and image editors.

Best Graphic Design Software for Linux

Now, let us move on to check out 7 of the best Linux tools for digital artists.

1. GIMP

GIMP stands for GNU Image Manipulation Program. GIMP is one of the best free tools for a digital artist to have installed on Ubuntu or any other Linux distributions.

It is a completely free Linux tool for a digital artist irrelevant to the level of expertise. It is meant for everyone. Even if you are an expert, you can make use of it, or if you are a novice, you can utilize it well. GIMP has a lot to offer than just editing a photo or redesigning it. Several plugins and extensions make GIMP a fortune to have on one’s system. Moreover, without spending a penny, you get to do all the basic designing or editing stuff and some of the complex image manipulation tasks as well.

If you are running on Ubuntu, you can find it listed on Ubuntu Software Center. You can directly install it from there and if you are on a different Linux distribution, you can head to their installation help page for further information.

2. Krita

Yet another impressive Linux tool for digital artists. Krita was meant as an add-on with KOffice to facilitate image editing within the suite of office tools. However, it turned out to have a lot more potential to be an independent desktop application competing with programs like GIMP.

To our surprise, it still is not like GIMP. However, more focused for use by illustrators, cartoonists, and concept drawing artists. It definitely offers a range of features and is constantly developing as we talk. Also, you could argue that Krita provides a better user interface compared to GIMP.

Recently, it introduced render animation capability, full support for OSX, enhanced color picker and more. It is similarly extensible with the use of plugins or extensions. It brings in a good collection of filters to choose from and also provides the ability to control layers in an image just like Adobe Photoshop. It can import a lot of files, but it has discontinued support for PSD files.

Features and usability are the strong point of Krita. No wonder this French university dumped Adobe Photoshop for Krita.

You can grab the snap from Ubuntu’s software center, or you could download an AppImage and make it executable to install further. For more info, you can try heading to Krita’s download page.

3. Inkscape

It is an open source vector graphics editor. You can have it installed on your Linux system as an alternative to Adobe Illustrator. The user interface offered here may not be much of attraction, but it is simply darn good with the powerful features and tools offered.

It is obviously one of the best Linux tools for digital artists around that are actively developed. If you find it easier to work with but still you prefer Adobe Illustrator, then you can easily export your file in Illustrator file format and import it on Illustrator later. You can export to SVG format, SVGZ, LaTeX, and POV-Ray file format as well. There are extensions which let you save files as PDFs, EPS, and so on.

Inkscape may not be the one if you are a leading expert because it lacks certain features available on popular commercial vector graphics editor. However, if you are an artist who prefers a free and an easy-to-use tool over an expensive one, you can definitely make use of it.

You can get this directly from Ubuntu Software Center. In either case, if you are running a different Linux distribution, you can try installing it through the terminal by entering the following command:

Recommended Read:

5 Best Vector Graphics Editors for Linux

Looking for free alternatives to Adobe Illustrator or Corel Draw? Here are the best graphic design tools in Linux.

Ссылка на основную публикацию
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